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Buy Roman Denari [BEST]

Its symbol is represented in Unicode as ? (U+10196), a numeral monogram that appeared on the obverse in the Republican period, denoting the 10 asses ("X") to 1 denarius ("I") conversion rate. However it can also be represented as X̶ (capital letter X with combining long stroke overlay).

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The first distinctively Roman silver coin appeared around 226 BC.[5] Classical historians have sometimes called these coins "heavy denarii", but they are classified by modern numismatists as quadrigati, a term which survives in one or two ancient texts and is derived from the quadriga, or four-horse chariot, on the reverse. This, with a two-horse chariot or biga which was used as a reverse type for some early denarii, was the prototype for the most common designs used on Roman silver coins for a number of years.[6][7][8]

The value at its introduction was 10 asses, giving the denarius its name, which translates as "containing ten". In about 141 BC, it was re-tariffed at 16 asses, to reflect the decrease in weight of the as. The denarius continued to be the main coin of the Roman Empire until it was replaced by the antoninianus in the early 3rd century AD. The coin was last issued, in bronze, under Aurelian between AD 270 and 275, and in the first years of the reign of Diocletian. ('Denarius', in A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins, by John R. Melville-Jones (1990)).[11][12]

In the final years of the 1st century BC Tincomarus, a local ruler in southern Britain, started issuing coins that appear to have been made from melted down denarii.[20] The coins of Eppillus, issued around Calleva Atrebatum around the same time, appear to have derived design elements from various denarii such as those of Augustus and M. Volteius.[21][20]

Even after the denarius was no longer regularly issued, it continued to be used as a unit of account, and the name was applied to later Roman coins in a way that is not understood. The Arabs who conquered large parts of the land that once belonged to the Eastern Roman Empire issued their own gold dinar. The lasting legacy of the denarius can be seen in the use of "d" as the abbreviation for the British penny until 1971.[22] It also survived in France as the name of a coin, the denier. The denarius also survives in the common Arabic name for a currency unit, the dinar used from pre-Islamic times, and still used in several modern Arab nations. The major currency unit in former Principality of Serbia, Kingdom of Serbia and former Yugoslavia was dinar, and it is still used in present-day Serbia. The Macedonian currency denar is also derived from the Roman denarius. The Italian word denaro, the Spanish word dinero, the Portuguese word dinheiro, and the Slovene word denar, all meaning money, are also derived from Latin denarius. The pre-decimal currency of the United Kingdom until 1970 of pounds, shillings and pence was abbreviated as lsd, with "d" referring to denarius and standing for penny.

In the New Testament, the gospels refer to the denarius as a day's wage for a common laborer (Matthew 20:2,[23] John 12:5).[24] In the Book of Revelation, during the Third Seal: Black Horse, a choinix ("quart") of wheat and three quarts of barley were each valued at one denarius.[25] Bible scholar Robert H. Mounce says the price of the wheat and barley as described in the vision appears to be ten to twelve times their normal cost in ancient times.[26] Revelation thus describes a condition where basic goods are sold at greatly inflated prices. Thus, the black horse rider depicts times of deep scarcity or famine, but not of starvation. Apparently, a choinix of wheat was the daily ration of one adult. Thus, in the conditions pictured by Revelation 6, the normal income for a working-class family would buy enough food for only one person. The less costly barley would feed three people for one day's wages.

After deciding to start a collection and finding a market from where you can buy, you must think what you want to buy. First of all, a collection with all the nominal values. If you try to collect all these coins that circulated from the first century to the second century AD, you will need to find two gold coins, an aureus and a quinarius aureus, two silver ones, the denarius and the quinarius argenteus, and five bronze ones, the sestertius, the dupondius, the as, the semis and the quadrans.

But to complete the collection you will need some serious money, finding an aureus below 2000 $ being a real chance (usually this coin is worth 4000-6000 $). A decent denarius can be found from 20 $ to 200 $, and it can be even more expensive if it is a rare type. The sesterius is also a little bit expensive, around 100-200 $, sometimes cheaper or not. The other bronze coins are easy to find.

Depending on the money you have, you can collect only a particular type of coins. For example silver denarii. The bronze sestetius is also an attractive option, due to its large dimensions (usually 27 gr. and around 25-35 mm) and its beautiful scenes. But even then you will try to find a more particular theme.

From Augustus, it was a gold coin of high purity, around 23 k, and a weight of 7.9-8 gr. and a diameter of 19-21 mm. It had a value of 25 silver denarius. On one side, the head of the emperor appears or, more rarely, a member of his family. On the other side, different scenes are presented.

It weighed around 4,4 gr. in the beginning. Augustus minted denarius at around 3,9 gr. From 64 AD, Nero minted them around 3,5 gr. In the second century, the coin dropped to around 2,5-3,3 gr but pieces of 3,8 are not unusual.

The diameter was around 17-18 mm for the denarius in the first century. At the beginning of the second century, it was around 18-20 mm. Starting with the first part of the reign of Septimius Severus, it was a more thick and small coin, around 15-17 mm but from the second part of the reign, after 202, it became thin and large, around 18-21 mm.

The quality of the silver was around 90-93 %, in the beginning. From the reign of Trajan, 98-117, it was around 70-80 %. Septimius Severus minted denarius at around 50-70 %. Sometimes, these coins were made from bronze and only silver plated.

Quinarius argenteus represents half a denarius. It is made from silver and has a weight of half this coin, around 1,2-1,7 gr. It is similar to the denarius. It is a very rare coin, hard to find and usually expensive.

Quadrans was of an as, as the name states (quadrans=quarter). Also a rare coin. Was minted ever since republican times. In the imperial time, it was rarely minted. Lots of collectors have the tendency to take the fake denarii, made from bronze, as quadrans. The main difference is the style. The quadrans have a slight negligent aspect.

(HFMA# 2006.010.070, gift of James and Aneta McIntyre)Reverse of a Roman silver denarius minted in commemoration of the victory of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus over the Gallic Allobroges and Averni in 121 BCE.Instead of the usual victory goddess, a helmeted Roma, identified by the inscription, holds a scepter in her left while crowing a trophy with her right. The trophy consists of Gallic arms, as marked by the bear head helmet on top and the two Celtic signal horns (carnyces) left and right of it. The mint master, a Marcus Furius Philus, son of Lucius, is identified by the abbreviated PHILI in the exergue.The obverse (depicted below) shows a double-headed, bearded Janus head (the doors of the Janus temple were closed when Rome was at peace) and the inscription M. FOVRI. L. F, i.e. M. Furi(us) L(ucii) F(ilius). The coin is part of the James and Aneta McIntyre Collection of Greek and Roman Coins that is currently being prepared for exhibition.

The 20 Roman silver denarii and double-denarii shown above realized about $770, which breaks down to an average of $38 apiece. Included are coins with attractive portraits of the famous emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, as well as others less well-known.

Roman silver denarii minted under the Roman Republic also can be inexpensive when not in exceptional condition. A wide variety of denarii were struck under the Republic from about 212 B.C. to the 40s and 30s B.C. Below are five examples recently sold at auction which most collectors would find affordable.

Struck in 111 or 110 B.C., this denarius of the moneyers Appius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancius, and Q. Urbinius shows the helmeted head of Roma and Victory driving a three-horse chariot (triga). It sold for less than $85.

The moneyer C. Licinius L.f. Macer, in c.84 B.C., struck the denarius above showing the bust of Vejovis, who hurls a thunderbolt, and the goddess Minerva, who guides a four-horse chariot (quadriga). It realized about $90.

The denarius above, with its as-issued serrated edge, was struck for the moneyer Q. Antonius Balbus in c.83 or 82 B.C. It shows the head of Jupiter and Victory driving quadriga. This attractive coin realized about $100.

Like other coins shown here, this billon double-denarius of the emperor Gallienus (A.D. 253-268), bearing his portrait and a walking panther, spent almost no time in circulation before it was buried. Even in such high grade, the piece above sold for less than $80.

Fun facts: A Roman foot soldier (legionary) received a payment of one third of one denarius to be put toward equipment maintenance and daily expenses. Equites (or cavalry who provided their own horses) were allotted one denarius per day for the care of their horses.

Hundreds thousands of silver Roman denarii have been found in the areas inhabited by Goths and Vandals in the beginning of this era. Up until now, historians were convinced the coins came from the Empire itself.

Roman coins were first produced in the late 4th century BCE in Italy and continued to be minted for another eight centuries across the empire. Denominations and values more or less constantly changed but certain types such as the sestertii and denarii would persist and come to rank amongst the most famous coins in history. 041b061a72


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