Articles On The Topic: "ghost"
The links below provide access to a sampling of articles from historic newspapers that can be found in Chronicling America. You can further explore the topic of the "Ghost Dance Movenment" using the following search strategies:
Articles on the topic: "ghost"
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of articles with honorary authors (named authors who have not met authorship criteria) and ghost authors (individuals not named as authors but who contributed substantially to the work) in peer-reviewed medical journals and to identify journal characteristics and article types associated with such authorship misappropriation.
Participants: A total of 809 corresponding authors (1179 surveyed, 69% response rate) of articles published in 1996 in 3 peer-reviewed, large-circulation general medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, and The New England Journal of Medicine) and 3 peer-reviewed, smaller-circulation journals that publish supplements (American Journal of Cardiology, American Journal of Medicine, and American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology).
Results: Of the 809 articles, 492 were original research reports, 240 were reviews and articles not reporting original data, and 77 were editorials. A total of 156 articles (1 9%) had evidence of honorary authors (range, 11%-25% among journals); 93 articles (11%) had evidence of ghost authors (range, 7%-16% among journals); and 13 articles (2%) had evidence of both. The prevalence of articles with honorary authors was greater among review articles than research articles (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6) but did not differ significantly between large-circulation and smaller-circulation journals (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.96-2.03). Compared with similar-type articles in large-circulation journals, articles with ghost authors in smaller-circulation journals were more likely to be reviews (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.5-13.5) and less likely to be research articles (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.88).
It is by now no secret that some scientific articles are ghost authored - that is, written by someone other than the person whose name appears at the top of the article. Ghost authorship, however, is only one sort of ghosting. In this article, we present evidence that pharmaceutical companies engage in the ghost management of the scientific literature, by controlling or shaping several crucial steps in the research, writing, and publication of scientific articles. Ghost management allows the pharmaceutical industry to shape the literature in ways that serve its interests. This article aims to reinforce and expand publication ethics as an important area of concern for bioethics. Since ghost-managed research is primarily undertaken in the interests of marketing, large quantities of medical research violate not just publication norms but also research ethics. Much of this research involves human subjects, and yet is performed not primarily to increase knowledge for broad human benefit, but to disseminate results in the service of profits. Those who sponsor, manage, conduct, and publish such research therefore behave unethically, since they put patients at risk without justification. This leads us to a strong conclusion: if medical journals want to ensure that the research they publish is ethically sound, they should not publish articles that are commercially sponsored.
Because ghost management is hidden, we cannot tell how common it is from published exposés. Current practices in the medical sciences legitimately allow people to serve as authors on the basis of narrow contributions. Therefore many near-honorary authors find little reason to feel uncomfortable with their roles. Fully honorary authors may not see enough of the process of the production of their articles to know that they are ghost managed. Finally, it is not in the interests of writers, authors, or sponsors and their agents to reveal ghost management processes; hence a number of the published accounts of ghost management have stemmed from legal proceedings and investigative journalism. So how common is ghost management?
Healy and Cattell claim that the CMD articles are uniformly positive about sertraline, and they note under-reporting of side effects in these articles. Compared to other articles on sertraline (i.e., those not coordinated by CMD), the CMD articles were published in more prominent journals, had nearly twice as many authors per article, had authors who were on average twice as prolific, and garnered nearly three times as many citations (20.2 versus 7.7 in Healy and Cattell's analysis) . Apparently, CMD was effective at helping publish these articles in a visible way.
In addition to the publication planners, a much higher number of medical writing companies and individual writers create articles and presentations without engaging in broader publication planning; these may be adjuncts to publication planners. To provide an indication of the scale, the American Medical Writers Association boasts a membership of more than 5,000 ; judging from the organization's officers and the content of its conferences, it appears to be dominated by MECCs [38,39].
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This Special Issue aims to stress the importance of considering ghost towns as a potential resource for the development of marginal territories and inland areas. This implies the development of methods and tools for an integrated analysis of the causes of abandonment, both natural and human. Therefore, we invite you to submit articles contributing to improving the methodological approach to the study of ghost towns. Papers dealing with case studies and examples of economic, social and cultural management of abandoned towns will be appreciated. In addition, studies addressing the geological heritage in old urban areas are welcome. They could be help to inform the optimal conservation and regeneration of ghost towns.
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As briefly mentioned above, different breakup tactics vary in degree of how compassionate they are perceived by breakup recipients. Sprecher et al. (2010) found that the breakup tactics perceived as the most uncompassionate were manipulation, distant/mediated communication, and avoidance/withdrawal. Since ghosting behaviors involve indirectly ending a relationship through avoidance and severing established technologically-mediated communication pathways, it would follow that ghosting may be perceived as an inconsiderate breakup strategy. Anecdotal accounts from popular culture articles have demonstrated that negative feelings are harbored as a result of being the recipient of ghosting (Carter, 2013; Spira, 2016), however, the consequences for both recipients and disengagers following the use of ghosting as a breakup strategy have yet to be studied empirically.
The perception of ghosting in popular culture articles has been largely negative, and ghosting recipients are usually highlighted as targets who experience undue suffering. When considered independently, ghosting may seem like an uncompassionate breakup strategy that exacerbates an already distressing situation. However, when paralleled with a comparable experience (i.e., a traditional breakup), post-breakup outcomes that may seem unique to ghosting breakups become less apparent. In both our samples direct breakups were found to be more distressing than breakups that ended through ghosting (though both instances were exploratory and did not account for inflated Type I error). Furthermore, when commitment was added as a covariate across both samples, the amount of reported breakup distress between direct and ghosting breakups became indistinguishable. When relationship length was controlled for in Sample A, the effect of breakup strategy disappeared, however, in Sample B, the effect remained statistically significant. This suggests that commitment, and perhaps to a lesser extent relationship length, have a greater influence over experiences of post-breakup distress than the breakup strategy that was used to facilitate relationship dissolution. Further research will be needed to identify and quantify potential differences in post-breakup outcomes between breakup strategies if such differences exist. 041b061a72